Tuesday, 10 January 2017

Grandes personagens da História de Portugal (Portuguese) (great personalities of the History of Portugal)

By Lourenço Pereira Coutinho:
GRANDES PERSONAGENS DA HISTÓRIA DE PORTUGAL | e-cultura [Internet]. E-cultura.sapo.pt. 2017 [cited 10 January 2017]. Available from: http://www.e-cultura.sapo.pt/artigo/7472.

I loved the course on «History of Portugal» taught by the author in the facilities of El Corte Inglés, Lisbon, Portugal. The author is an excellent communicator and storyteller. At the same time, I bought the book and delighted me with a mature and attractive writing. Only the last two chapters seem to have been written by another person, in a different, less succinct style. The book talks about the following Portuguese personalities:
  • D. Afonso Henriques, the conqueror of a kingdom;
  • João XXI, the Portuguese Pope;
  • D. Nuno Álvares Pereira, holy and constable;
  • D. João II, the prince of the great century;
  • Damião de Goes, the Humanism of the seventh century;
  • Father António Vieira, the Portugal of the Restoration;
  • Marquis of Pombal, a despot illuminated:
    • «(...), the University taught only absolute truths, without any incentive to speculation and, with few exceptions, with little interest in experimental teaching, so that they came out of it only spirits formatted and non-critical ability.»
    • «(...) D. João V (...) was unable to envision the future and forearm the Kingdom for the eventuality of the end of abundance and times of tranquility./(...) lacked him a truly comprehensive and strategic vision, a factor that distinguishes great statesmen from those who only fulfill their duty within the framework they encounter.»
    • «(...) The young Sebastião José was already showing signs of not getting along with the authority, this when he was not in charge.»
  • D. Carlos I, a poorly known king:
    • «The "English Ultimatum" (...) provoked a chorus of indignation among the most inattentive people, setting the tone for a serious contestation to the regime.»/(...) Public participation was carried out through parties with no connection with national reality and was fed by favors and commitments that guaranteed comfortable places in the State, thus ensuring the necessary political loyalties./Despite progress, Portuguese society continued to sail in still waters, had little critical sense, no commitment and was devoid of true independence. (...).»
    • «(...) The regenerating party was an amalgam of factions without a definite program, and progressives oscillated between the fierce criticism of the Crown, when in opposition, and an enervating placidity, when in Government./Nothing united these political groups to the national reality, nor did any cause motivate them then, (...).»
    • «(...), Oliveira Martins (...) took measures (...) to control the public deficit by raising taxes and cutting benefits. But none of this came and the sacrifices demanded by the Government resulted in nothing. In 1893, Dias Ferreira refused to appeal again to the external credit and the country fell into bankruptcy.»
    • «(...), the major problem of the Portuguese system was not, however, in formal or legal aspects, but in the lack of representativeness of the political system. (...).»
    • «(...) D. Carlos was (...) the first Portuguese head of state to systematically use State visits as an instrument of foreign policy./(...) the heirs of the throne made study visits by Europe to complete their education, (...).»
    • «Between 1893 and 1906, regenerators and progressives alternated quietly in power, distributing seats in the State and ensuring the political irrelevance of all other political groupings, thanks to successive electoral laws that only benefited them.»
  • Afonso Costa, The lord of the republic:
    • «Like all memorable characters, it generated deep hatreds and great admirations. In his case, this was deliberately provoked, because he almost always acted in such a way that his public acts were not consensual. (...) had a Manichean view of politics and often artificially extremed positions so as not to leave room for compromises.»
    • «(...) separating waters, pointing out enemies and contributing to a radicalization that, in the end, ended up victimizing him politically.»
    • «(...) others more mundane like Afonso Costa were more flexible or rather ambiguous and argued that Republicans should establish alliances to strengthen themselves politically.»
    • «Contrary to what Alfonso Costa had foreseen, the entry of the Great War only aggravated the Portuguese problems. (...)./(...) because they were fighting away from their country in a war where mainland Portugal was not being threatened or advocating any cause of its own (...)./Internally, the Great War brought more scarcity (...)./(...) participation in the European war resulted in a gratuitous and unjustified death.»
    • «(...) Sidónio Pais (...)/(...), the new President was (...) anticlerical and Masonic, (...).»
    • «Among the powers, it was widely believed that Portugal had no capacity to administer more colonies (...).»
    • «In the 1920s, the Republic failed to generate motivating causes or figures that could reverse the chaotic state of public affairs. (...).»
    • «In May 1926, the First Republic fell and gave way to a military dictatorship of republican and conservative matrix, (...)./(...), it lasted until 1933, when the civil element imposed the establishment of a formally corporate regime, the New State, which later evolved into an authoritarian system of traditionalist inspiration, centered on the figure of Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, (...).»
    • «(...) social peace, (...) at the expense of the silencing of oppositions; political stability, (...) due to the abolition of political parties; and economic balance, made possible by the implementation of protectionist measures [the New State].»

Northanger abbey (a abadia de Northanger [Portuguese])

By Jane Austen:
A Abadia de Northanger - Jane Austen em Fnac.pt [Internet]. Fnac.com. 2017 [cited 10 January 2017]. Available from: http://www.fnac.pt/A-Abadia-de-Northanger-Jane-Austen/a959154.

This novel of Jane Austen is funny, but it still reveals some immaturity, and the romantic emotion is not of the same magnitude as one feels, for example, in «Persuation» or «Pride and Prejudice». The novel ends with a marriage in which there seems no love, there are enchantment and admiration on the part of Catherine and sympathy from Mr. Tilney.
Some more interesting quotes:
  • «Her mother was a woman of useful plain sense, with a good temper, (...).»
  • «(...) she was training for a heroine; she read all such works as heroines must read to supply their memories with those quotations which are so serviceable and so soothing in the vicissitudes of their eventful lives.»
  • «And from Shakespeare, she gained a great store of information - amongst the rest, that - (...) a young woman in love always looks "like Patience (...)/Smiling at Grief."»
  • «(...) when a young lady is to be a heroine, the perverseness of forty surrounding families cannot prevent her. Something must and will happen to throw a hero in a way.»
  • «(...) if adventures will not befall a young lady in her own village, she must seek them abroad, (...).»
  • «(...) it is this delightful habit of journaling which largely contributes to form the easy style of writing which ladies are so celebrated. (...) the talent of writing agreeable letters is peculiarly female. Nature may have done something, but (...) it must be essentially assisted by the practice of keeping a journal."»
  • «Mr. Tilney was polite enough to seem interested in what she said.»
  • «Pump Room», a historic building in the Abbey Church Yard, «Bath», Somerset, England:
By Palmer, 1804. Source: Jane Austen's World. (2008). The Pump Room’s Little-Known and Well-Known Facts. [online] Available at: https://janeaustensworld.wordpress.com/2008/10/06/the-pump-rooms-little-known-and-well-known-facts/ [Accessed 28 Jan. 2017].

Entrance to the Pump Room. Source: Jane Austen's World. (2008). The Pump Room’s Little-Known and Well-Known Facts. [online] Available at: https://janeaustensworld.wordpress.com/2008/10/06/the-pump-rooms-little-known-and-well-known-facts/ [Accessed 28 Jan. 2017].

1841. Source: Art.bathnes.gov.uk. (n.d.). Collection Search - Search results. [online] Available at: http://art.bathnes.gov.uk/ow23/collections/rechcroisee.xsp?f=Ensemble&v=&f=Placesearch_field&v=Pump+Room&e= [Accessed 28 Jan. 2017].

The Early Eighteenth Century Pump Room, 1855. Source: Art.bathnes.gov.uk. (n.d.). Collection Search - Search results. [online] Available at: http://art.bathnes.gov.uk/ow23/collections/rechcroisee.xsp?f=Ensemble&v=&f=Placesearch_field&v=Pump+Room&e= [Accessed 28 Jan. 2017].
  • «Crescent», a row of 30 terraced houses laid out in a sweeping crescent in the city of Bath, England:
Bath, L. (n.d.). Live the sense and sensibilities of Jane Austen’s Bath. [online] VisitEngland. Available at: https://www.visitengland.com/experience/live-sense-and-sensibilities-jane-austens-bath [Accessed 2 Feb. 2017].

de Vos, M. (2005). The Royal Crescent, Bath. [online] Pinterest. Available at: https://pt.pinterest.com/mariammustaffa/the-royal-crescent-bath/ [Accessed 2 Feb. 2017].

  • «(...) curiosity could do no more. (...) This sort of mysteriousness, which is always so becoming in a hero, threw a fresh grace in Catherine's imagination around his person and manners and increased the anxiety to know more of him [Mr. Tilney]. (...) and his impression on her fancy was not suffered therefore to weaken.»
  • «If the heroine of one novel be not patronized by the heroine of another, from whom can she expect protection and regard?»
  • «(...) some work in which the greatest powers of the mind are displayed, in which the most thorough knowledge of human nature, the happiest delineation of varieties, the liveliest effusions of wit and humour, are conveyed to the world in the best-chosen language.»
  • Milsom Street, Bath:
Woodruffe R. Collection Search - Display one record. Artbathnesgovuk. Available at: http://art.bathnes.gov.uk/ow23/collections/voir.xsp?id=00101-11535&qid=sdx_q0&n=3&e=. Accessed March 6, 2017.

TravellingBazaar - Bath Travel Guide. Travellingbazaarcom. 2009. Available at: http://www.travellingbazaar.com/Bath%203.html. Accessed March 6, 2017.

  • «(...) Where the heart is really attached, (...). Everything is so insipid, so interesting, that does not relate to the beloved object! (...).»
  • «(...) It appeared first in a general dissatisfaction with everybody about her, while she remained in the rooms, which speedily brought on considerable weariness and a violent desire to go home. (...).»
  • «(...) she had not been brought up to understand the propensities of a rattle, nor to know to how many idle assertions and impudent falsehoods the excess of vanity will lead. Her own family were plain, matter-of-fact people who seldom aimed at wit of any kind; her father, at the utmost, being contented with a pun, and her mother with a proverb; they were not in the habit therefore of telling lies to increase their importance, or of asserting at one moment what they would contradict the next. (...).»
  • «(...). In a private consultation between Isabella and James, the former of whom had particularly set her heart upon going, and the latter no less anxiously placed his upon pleasing her, (...). (...).»
  • «(...) Where people wish to attach, they should always be ignorant. To come with a well-informed mind is to come with an inability to administering the vanity of others, which a sensible person would always wish to avoid. (...).»
  • «(...): the present was now comprised in another three weeks, and her happiness being certain for that period, the rest of her life was at such distance as to excite but little interest. (...).»
  • «It was wonderful that her friends should seem so little elated by the possession of such a home, that the consciousness of it should be so meekly borne. The power of early habit only would account for it. A distinction to which they have been born gave no pride. They superiority of abode was no more to them than their superiority of person.»
  • «"But now you love a hyacinth. So much the better. You have gained a new source of enjoyment, and it is well to have as many holds upon happiness as possible. (...)?"/(...)/"(...) The mere habit of learning to love is the thing; and a teachableness of disposition in a young lady is a great blessing. (...)?"»
  • «"(...) The money is nothing, it is not an object, but employment is the thing. (...)."»
  • «(...) She could remember dozens who have persevered in every possible vice, going on from crime to crime, murdering whomsoever they chose, without any feeling of humanity or remorse; till a violent death or a religious retirement closed their black career. (...).»
  • «"(...) Does our education prepare us for such atrocities? Do our laws connive at them? Could they be perpetrated without being known, in a country like this, where social and literary intercourse is on such a footing, where every man is surrounded by a neighbourhood of voluntary spies, and where roads and newspaper lay everything open? (...)?"»
  • «(...). (...) when she promise a thing, she was so scrupulous in performing it! (...)!»
  • «"(...) our pleasures in this world are always to be paid for, and (...) we often purchase them at a great disadvantage, giving ready-monied actual happiness for a draft on the future, that be not be honoured. (...)."»
  • «(...) Mrs. Morland endeavoured to impress on her daughter's mind the happiness of having such steady well-wishers (...), and the very little consideration which the neglect or unkindness of slight acquaintance like the Tilneys ought to have with her, while she could preserve the good opinion and affection of her earliest friends. There was a great deal of good sense in all this; but there are some situations of the human mind in which good sense has very little power; (...).»
  • «"There is a very clever essay in one of the books upstairs upon much such a subject, about young girls that have been spoilt for home by great acquaintance - The Mirror, I think. (...)"»
  • «"(...) She is ingenuous, but not stupid, and she is keen to detect the falseness of others, (...) [Afterword by P. D. James, 2014]."»
  • «"(...) She is deeply in love, and it is, more moderately, reciprocated by Henry, whose affection is based on her effusive passion for him [Afterword by P. D. James, 2014]."»
  • «"The reader may wonder if the wedding will be the happiest of all marriages of the six Jane Austen novels. Henry Tilney is a very insightful young man, and Catherine will hardly match him in conversation, wit or intelligence. (...) [Afterword by P. D. James, 2014]."»